Grzegorz Tarczyński

(Polish) PDF


The paper presents the model for optimal number of merged orders that will reduce the average order-picking time. Two order batching policies were described: pick-then-sort and sort-while-pick. One-block rectangular warehouses were considered. The author studied two routing heuristics: s-shape and return for which the equations for average order-picking time can be designated based on probability distributions: binomial distribution and uniform distribution. The research takes into account the possible congestion problem. Based on simulations the analytical form of blocking time for pickers was proposed. The study shows that the advantages of each additional merged order is getting smaller. Using ABC classification for storage location assignment in warehouses with low number of aisles and large pick lists can extend the average order-picking time.


order-pick ing, order-batching, optimization, congestion, blocking


Balcerak A., (2003), Walidacja modeli symulacyjnych – źródła postaw badawczych, Prace Naukowe Instytutu Organizacji i Zarządzania Politechniki Wrocławskiej, 74 (15), 27–44.

Chen F., Wang H., Xie Y., Qi C., (2016), An ACO-Based Online Routing Method for Multiple Order Pickers with Congestion Consideration in Warehouse, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 27 (2), 389–408.

De Koster R., Van der Poort E., Roodbergen K. J., (1998), When to Apply Optimal or Heuristic Routing of Orderpickers, Advances in Distribution Logistics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 375–401.

Dmytrów K., (2013), Procedura kompletacji zakładająca oczyszczanie lokalizacji, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, Studia i Prace Wydziału Nauk Ekonomicznych i Zarządzania, tom 2 Metody Ilościowe w Ekonomii, 31, Szczecin, 22–36.

Dmytrów K., (2015), Taksonomiczne wspomaganie wyboru lokalizacji w procesie kompletacji produktów, Studia Ekonomiczne, 248, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach, Katowice, 17–30.

Dmytrów K., Doszyń M., (2015), Taksonomiczna procedura wspomagania kompletacji produktów w magazynie, Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, Taksonomia, 25 Klasyfikacja i analiza danych – teoria i zastosowania, Wrocław, 72–80.

Gue K. R., Meller R. D., Skufca J. D., (2006), The Effects of Pick Density on Order Picking Areas with Narrow Aisles, IIE Transactions, 38 (10), 859–868.

Hong S., (2014), Two-worker Blocking Congestion Model with Walk Speed m in a No-passing Circular Passage System, European Journal of Operational Research, 235 (3), 687–696.

Hong S., Johnson A. L., Peters B. A., (2010), Analysis of Picker Blocking in Narrow-Aisle Batch Picking, w: Ellis K., Gue K., Koster R., Meller R., Montreuil B., Oglep M., (red.), Proceedings of 2010 International Material Handling Research Colloquium (IMHRC), The Material Handling Institute, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Hong S., Johnson A. L., Peters B. A., (2012a), Batch Picking in Narrow-aisle Order Picking Systems with Consideration for Picker Blocking, European Journal of Operational Research, 221 (3), 557–570.

Hong S., Johnson A. L., Peters B. A., (2012b), Large-scale Order Batching in Parallel-aisle Picking Systems, IIE Transactions, 44 (2), 88–106.

Krawczyk S., (red.), (2011), Logistyka. Teoria i praktyka, Wydawnictwo Difin, Warszawa.

Pan J. C. H., Shih P. H., Wu M. H., (2012), Storage Assignment Problem with Travel Distance and Blocking Considerations for a Picker-to-part Order Picking System, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 62 (2), 527–535.

Parikh P. J., Meller R. D., (2008), Selecting Between Batch and Zone Order Picking Strategies in a Distribution Center, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 44 (5), 696–719.

Parikh P. J., Meller R. D., (2009), Estimating Picker Blocking in Wide-aisle Order Picking Systems, IIE Transactions, 41 (3), 232–246.

Parikh P. J., Meller R. D., (2010), A Note on Worker Blocking in Narrow-aisle Order Picking Systems when Pick Time is Non-Deterministic, IIE Transactions, 42 (6), 392–404.

Ratliff H. D., Rosenthal A. S., (1987), Order-picking in a Rectangular Warehouse: A Solvable Case of the Traveling Salesman Problem, Operation Research, 31 (3), 515–533.

Sargent R. G., (2013), Verification and Validation of Simulation Models, Journal of Simulation, 7 (1), 12–24.

Schlesinger S., Crosbie R. E., Gagné R. E., Innis G. S., Lalwani C. S., Loch J., Bartos D., (1979), Terminology for Model Credibility, Simulation, 32 (3), 103–104.

Tarczyński G., (2013), Warehouse Real-Time Simulator – How to Optimize Order Picking Time, Working Paper, Available at SSRN:

Tarczyński G., (2015a), Estimating Order-picking Times for Return Heuristic – Equations and Simulations, LogForum 11.

Tarczyński G., (2015b), Średnie czasy kompletacji zamówień dla heurystyki s-shape – wzory i symulacje, Studia Ekonomiczne 237/15. Informatyka i Ekonometria 2, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach, Katowice 2015, 104–116.

Zhang M., Batta R., Nagi R., (2009), Modeling of Workflow Congestion and Optimization of Flow Routing in a Manufacturing/Warehouse Facility, Management Science, 55 (2), 267–280.

Back to top
© 2019–2022 Copyright by Statistics Poland, some rights reserved. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-SA 4.0)