Piotr Kębłowski

(Polish) PDF


In the article the relationship between the inventive activity of the Visegrad Group industrial enterprises and the research and development outlays is investigated. The analysis is conducted for different levels of technological sophistication (high, medium-high, medium-low, low) and patent applications to the European Patent Office are used as a measure of the inventive activity. The results of uni- and multivariate panel cointegration analysis of the yearly data from 2005 to 2014 point out that the long- -run elasticity of patent applications to R&D outlays is higher, firstly, for high-technology economic activity than for medium-high, and secondly, for research activity within high-technology level financed from own resources, rather than by public funds. It was also found that in the case of medium-low and low technology level, the R&D outlays do not uniquely determine the number of patent applications.


innovativeness, patent applications, technology level, R&D outlays


Griliches Z., (1990), Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey, Journal of Economic Literature, 28 (4), 1661–1707.

Hadri K., (2000), Testing for Stationarity in Heterogeneous Panel Data, Econometrics Journal, 3, 148–161.

Hatzichronoglou T., (1997), Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 1997/02.

Heller J., Bogdański M., (2005), Nakłady na badania i rozwój w Polsce na tle wybranych państw europejskich, Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, 4 (22), 59–76.

High-tech Aggregation by NACE Rev. 2, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/metadata/Annexes/ htec_esms_an3.pdf, Eurostat.

Im K. S., Pesaran M. H., Shin Y., (2003), Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels, Journal of Econometrics, 115, 53–74.

Kao C., (1999), Spurious Regression and Residual-Based Tests for Cointegration in Panel Data, Journal of Econometrics, 90, 1–44.

Kębłowski P., (2007), Modelowanie zintegrowanych szeregów przekrojowo-czasowych, w: W. Welfe (red.), Gospodarka oparta na wiedzy, PWE, Warszawa.

Kębłowski P., (2009), Modelling Integrated Panel Data: An Overview, w: Welfe W., (red.), Knowledgebased Economics, Peter Lang, Frankfurt.

Kębłowski P., (2011), The Behaviour of Exchange Rates in the Central European Countries and Credit Default Risk Premiums, Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, 3, 221–236.

Kębłowski P., (2016), Canonical Correlation Analysis in Panel Vector Error Correction Model. Performance Comparison, Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, 8, 203–217.

Larsson R., Lyhagen J., (2007), Inference in Panel Cointegration Models with Long Panels, Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 25 (4), 473–483.

Levin A., Lin C.-F., Chu C.-S. J., (2002), Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties, Journal of Econometrics, 108, 1–24.

Okoń-Horodyńska E., Sierotowicz T., Wisła R., (2012), Pomiar aktywności patentowej gałęzi gospodarki z wykorzystaniem tablic konkordancyjnych, PTE, Warszawa.

Pedroni P., (2004), Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests with an Application to the PPP Hypothesis, Econometric Theory, 20, 597–625.

Revised Field of Science and Technology (FOS) Classification in the Frascati Manual, (2007), www.oecd.org/science/inno/38235147.pdf, OECD.

Schmoch U., (2008), Concepts of a Technology Classification for Country Comparisons, Faunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe.

Szajt M., (2015), Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie w finansowaniu działalności B+R jako miara potencjału innowacyjnego, Prace naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 392, 119–128.

Szajt M., (2016), Przestrzenno-czasowa analiza aktywności patentowej regionów Unii Europejskiej, Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 30, 91–104.

Szczygielski K., Grabowski W., Pamukcu M. T., Tandogan V. S., (2015), Does Government Support for Private Innovation Matter? Firm-Level Evidence from Two Catching-up Countries, Research Policy, 46, 219–237.

Świeczewska I., (2007), Łączna produktywność czynników produkcji. Ucieleśniony kapitał wiedzy, w: Welfe W., (red.), Gospodarka oparta na wiedzy, PWE, Warszawa.

Świeczewska I., (2009), Total Factor Productivity. The Embodied Capital of Knowledge, w: Welfe W., (red.), Knowledge-Based Economics, Peter Lang, Frankfurt.

Welfe W., (2007), Przesłanki modelowania gospodarki opartej na wiedzy, w: Welfe W., (red.), Gospodarka oparta na wiedzy, PWE, Warszawa.

Welfe W., (2009), The Foundations of Modelling a Knowledge-Based Economy, w: Welfe W., (red.), Knowledge-Based Economics, Peter Lang, Frankfurt.

Back to top
© 2019–2022 Copyright by Statistics Poland, some rights reserved. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-SA 4.0) Creative Commons — Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International — CC BY-SA 4.0