Dorota Witkowska https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9538-9589 , Krzysztof Kompa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2810-6654
ARTICLE

(Polish) PDF

ABSTRACT

Providing care for one’s relatives is always a sacrifice, which, aside from the reduction of income, often entails the worsening of one’s professional position and, consequently, a lower pension in the future. The aim of the paper is to establish if the phenomenon of the loss of income by family caregivers (care penalty) is observable in the Polish labour market, and if it is, whom it affects. The research was carried out on the basis of the data from the Polish Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2009Q1. Factors affecting employees' income were identified using regression models which contained explanatory variables describing the employees and the structure of their families as well as the characteristics of their workplaces. The analysis was performed separately for all the respondents, according to the respondents’ sex, and for female employees aged 25–54. The parameters of the models of monthly and hourly wages which used various sets of variables reflecting the family structure were estimated using the OLS method. Introducing variables representing the structure of households made it possible to observe that both the phenomena of the loss of income by working mothers (motherhood penalty) and of the loss of income by caregivers of elderly relatives (eldercare penalty) do apply to the Polish labour market. The study also demonstrated that the reduction of caregivers' income, especially that of the caregivers of the elderly, affects mostly women aged 25-54. The results of the research indicate that a vast number of Polish families function according to the traditional model, where it is mostly women who combine the role of a caregiver with their professional career.

KEYWORDS

labour market, wages, eldercare, childcare

JEL

C21, E24, J13, J23

REFERENCES

Angelov N., Johansson P., Lindahl E., (2013), Is the Persistent Gender Gap in Income and Wages Due to Unequal Family Responsibilities?, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 7181.

Anderson D. J., Binder M., Krause K., (2003), The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work Schedule Flexibility, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 56, 273–294.

Brody E. M., Schoonover C. B., (1986), Patterns of Parent-Care When Adult Daughters Work and When They Do Not, The Gerontologist, 26(4), 372–381.

Budig M. J., England P., (2001), The Wage Penalty for Motherhood, American Sociological Review, 66, 204–225.

Budig M. J., Hodges M. J., (2010), Differences in Disadvantage: Variation in the Motherhood Penalty Across White Women’s Earnings Distribution, American Sociological Review, 75(5).

Business Insider Polska, (2018), Szokujące dane GUS. Aktywność zawodowa kobiet jest najniższa od 19 lat. „500 plus do poprawki”, 26.02.2018, https://businessinsider.com.pl/twoje-pieniadze/praca/aktywnosc-zawodowa-polakow-gus-a-500-plus-program-do-poprawki/3pye7t5.

Correll S. J., Benard S., Paik I., (2007), Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty?, American Journal of Sociology, 112(5), 1297–1338.

Couch K. A., Daly M. C., Wolf D. A., (1999), Time? Money? Both? The Allocation of Resources to Older Parents, Demography, 36(2), 219–232.

Cukrowska E., (2011), Investigating the motherhood penalty in a post-communist economy: evidence from Poland, master thesis prepared under supervision of A´lmos Telegdy, Central European University, Budapest.

Cukrowska-Torzewska E., (2015), She cares and he earns? The family gap in Poland, Ekonomia, 42, 43–47.

Cukrowska-Torzewska E., Lovasz A., (2016), Are children driving the gender wage gap? Comparative evidence from Poland and Hungary, The Economics of Transition, 24(2), 259–297.

Cukrowska-Torzewska E., Lovasz A., (2017), The Impact of Parenthood on the Gender Wage Gap – a Comparative Analysis of European Countries and Family Policies, Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market, BWP-2017/15.

Czapin´ski J., Panek T. (red.), (2012), Diagnoza społeczna 2011. Warunki i jakos´c´ z˙ycia Polako´w, Rada Monitoringu Społecznego, Warszawa.

Davies R., Pierre G., (2005), The Family Gap in Pay in Europe: A Cross-Country Study, Labour Economics, 12, 469–486.

England P., (2005), Gender Inequality in Labor Markets: The Role of Motherhood and Segregation, Social Politics, 12, 264–288.

Gangl M., Ziefle A., (2009), Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women’s Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany and the United States, Demography, 46, 341–94.

Gehringer A., Klasen S., Witkowska D., (2014), Labour Force Participation and Family Policies in Europe: An Empirical Study, Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych, 15(1), 37–49.

Grajek M., (2003), Gender pay gap in Poland. Economics of Planning, 36(1), 23–44.

Heitmueller A., Inglis K., (2004), Carefree? Participation and Pay Differentials for Informal Carers in Britain, IZA Discussion Paper, No. 1273, Bonn.

Jaumotte F., (2004), Labour force participation of women: Empirical evidence on the role of policy and other determinants in OECD countries, OECD Economic Studies, 37, 2003/2, 51–108.

Johnson R. W., Lo Sasso A. T., (2000), The trade-off between hours of paid employment and time assistance to elderly parents at midlife, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/62491/409366-the-trade-off-between-hours-ofpaid-employment-and-time-assistance-to-elderly-parents-at-midlife.pdf.

Johnson R. W., Lo Sasso A. L., (2006), The impact of elder care on women’s labor supply, Inquiry, 43, 195–210.

Kaszubowski M., (2013), Modele płac typu Mincera na przykładzie pracowników naukowodydaktycznych polskich wyższych uczelni publicznych, Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych, 14(3), 39–50.

Keane M. P., Prasad E. S., (2006), Changes in structure of earnings during the Polish transition, Journal of Development Economics, 80, 389–427.

Kompa K., Witkowska D., (2018), Factors affecting men’s and women’s earnings in Poland, Economic Research, 31(1), 252–269.

Majchrowska A., Roszkowska S., (2013), Czy wykształcenie i doświadczenie zawodowe mają znaczenie? Wyniki równania Mincera dla Polski, Roczniki Kolegium Analiz Ekonomicznych, 30, 235–253.

Matuszewska-Janica A., Witkowska D., (2013), Zróżnicowanie płac ze względu na płeć: zastosowanie drzew klasyfikacyjnych, Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu – Taksonomia, 279(21), 58–66.

Mincer J., (1958), Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution, Journal of Political Economy, 66, 281–302.

Mincer J., (1974), Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, Colombia University Press, New York.

Montero J. M., Fernandes-Aviles G., Medina M. A., (2014), Using dissimilarity index for analyzing gender equity in childcare activities in Spain, Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych, 15(1), 133–141.

Muurinen J. M., (1986), The Economics of Informal Care: Labor Market Effects in the National Hospice Study, Medical Care, 24(11), 1007–1017.

Napari S., (2010), Is There a Motherhood Wage Penalty in the Finish Private Sector?, Labour, 24(1), 55–73.

Newell A., Socha M. W., (2007), The Polish Wage Inequality Explosion, The Economics of Transition, 15(4), 733–758.

Niedużak M. S., (2014), Dyspersja płac – zastosowanie równania Mincera dla różnych grup zawodowych w Polsce, Zarządzanie. Teoria i Praktyka, 2(10), 55–59.

Roszkowska S., Majchrowska A., (2014), Premia z wykształcenia i doświadczenia zawodowego według płci w Polsce, Materiały i Studia nr 302, Instytut Ekonomiczny NBP, Warszawa.

Simonsen M., Skipper L., (2006), The costs of motherhood: an analysis using matching estimators, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 21(7), 919–934.

Soldo B. J., Hill M. S., (1995), Family Structure and Transfer Measures in the Health and Retirement Study, Journal of Human Resources, Special Issue, 108–137.

Stone R. I., Short P. F., (1990), The Competing Demands of Employment and Informal Caregiving to Disabled Elders, Medical Care, 28(6), 513–526.

Strawiński P., (2006), Zwrot z inwestycji w wyższe wykształcenie, Ekonomista, 6, 805–821.

Strawiński P., (2015), Krzyżowe porównanie danych o wynagrodzeniach z polskich badań przekrojowych, Bank i Kredyt, 46(5), 433–462.

Synak B., (1989), Formal care for elderly people in Poland, Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 4(2), 107–127.

Śliwicki D., (2012), Czynniki determinujące poziom wynagrodzenia, Wiadomości Statystyczne, 10, 1–15.

Śliwicki D., Ryczkowski M., (2014), Gender Pay Gap in the micro level – case of Poland. Quantitative Methods in Economics, 15(1), 159–173.

Viitaten T. K., (2007), Informal and formal care in Europe, Sheffield Economic Research Paper Series, SERP No. 2007010.

Viitaten T. K., (2010), Informal Elderly Care and Women’s Labour Force Participation across Europe: Estimates from the European Community Household Panel, Economic Analysis and Policy, 53(2), 127–138.

Weichselbaumer D., Winter-Ebmer R., (2005), A meta-analysis of the international gender wage gap, Journal of Economic Surveys, 19(3), 479–511.

Witkowska D., (2012), Wage Disparities in Poland: Econometric Models of Wages, Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych, 13(2), 115–124.

Witkowska D., (2013), Gender Disparities in the Labor Market in the EU, International Advances in Economic Research, 19(4), 331–354.

Witkowska D., Matuszewska-Janica A., (2016), Men and women wage differences in Germany and Poland, International Journal of Science, Innovation and New Technology, 1(16), 17–24.

Witkowska D., Kompa K., Matuszewska-Janica A., (2019), Sytuacja kobiet na rynku pracy. Wybrane aspekty, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź.

Wolf D. A., Soldo B. J., (1994), Married Women’s Allocation of Time to Employment and Care of Elderly Parents, Journal of Human Resources, 29(3), 1259–1276.

Zharikova I., (2006), Studying the ”Motherhood Penalty” for Russia in Transition, Central European University Department of Economics, Master Thesis Collection.

Back to top
Copyright © 2019 Statistics Poland