Jakub Kwiatkowski https://orcid.org/0000 -0003-4534-4539 , Tomasz Tomaszewski https://orcid.org /0000-0002-9952-5346

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Patenting activity is broadly analysed in the literature at the micro, mezzo, and macroeconomic levels. Yet, not much attention regarding this issue is devoted to European countries in transition. The main aim of the study is a quantitative analysis of all patent applications filed with and grants issued by the Polish Patent Office throughout the period of 1990– 2018 at the aggregate and regional level. We investigate trends and factors determining the patenting activity in Poland – the country at an advanced level of the economic and social transition. The empirical analysis leads to several findings. First of all, we identify changes in the field of patenting related to Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, which resulted in the increase of residents’ patenting activity and decrease of that of non-residents (in terms of the number of filed applications and granted patents at a national and regional level). This holds for absolute numbers as well as for a per capita perspective. Additionally, we demonstrate that the increase in R&D expenditure is not followed by a proportional increase in patenting, as the patent-to- R&D ratio is systematically shrinking. Finally, the study compares trends in patenting activity in Poland with those in different groups of countries, proving that the dynamic of change in Poland is much slower than could be expected.


patents, Central and Eastern Europe, Polish Patent Office, innovations


O31, O34


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