Justyna Proniewicz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6241-7341

(English) PDF


The healthcare system in many countries is characterised by the co-existence of public and private medical services. Patients’ decisions regarding the purchase of private health services are made taking into account the trade-off between the price of a treatment and its quality and the waiting time. The aim of this study is to find out which factors impact the willingness to pay for health insurance or the willingness to pay for medical treatment. The study demonstrates that besides socio-demographic characteristics, some negative experiences (e.g. unavailable treatments, long waiting times, long journeys involved) and the experience of already having paid for treatments impact the willingness to pay. The results suggest that negative experiences are likely to cause a change in patients’ habits.


willingness to pay, preferences, rehabilitation, health care financing, public health insurance


D12, D91, I11, I13


Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji. (2018). Koncepcja zmian organizacji i funkcjonowania rehabilitacji leczniczej w systemie ochrony zdrowia w Polsce.

Aizuddin, A. N., Sulong, S., & Aljunid, S. M. (2012). Factors influencing willingness to pay for healthcare. BMC Public Health, 12(Suppl 2), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-S2-A37.

Arrow, K. J. (1963). Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. The American Economic Review, 53(5), 941–973. https://assets.aeaweb.org/asset-server/files/9442.pdf.

Bayoumi, A. M. (2004). The measurement of contingent valuation for health economics. PharmacoEconomics, 22(11), 691–700. https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200422110-00001.

Bielawska, K., & Lyskawa, K. (2021). Retirees’ Healthcare Needs and Satisfaction with their Coverage. European Research Studies Journal, 24(2), 1007–1018. https://doi.org/10.35808/ersj/2169.

Bigné, J. E., Mattila, A. S., & Andreu, L. (2008). The impact of experiential consumption cognitions and emotions on behavioral intentions. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(4), 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040810881704.

Brooks, R., Rabin, R., & de Charro, F. (Eds.). (2003). The measurement and valuation of health status using EQ-5D: A European perspective. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0233-1.

Brown, T. C., & Gregory, R. (1999). Why the WTA–WTP disparity matters. Ecological Economics, 28(3), 323–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00050-0.

Delacre, M., Leys, C., Mora, Y. L., & Lakens, D. (2019). Taking Parametric Assumptions Seriously: Arguments for the Use of Welch’s F-test instead of the Classical F-test in One-Way ANOVA. International Review of Social Psychology, 32(1), 1–12. http://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.198.

Dror, D. M., Radermacher, R., & Koren, R. (2007). Willingness to pay for health insurance among rural and poor persons: Field evidence from seven micro health insurance units in India. Health Policy, 82(1), 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.07.011.

Dudziński, P. (2019). The effect of financial risk on the demand for supplementary health insurance. Współczesna Gospodarka, 10(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.26881/wg.2019.2.01.

Exworthy, M., & Peckham, S. (2006). Access, Choice and Travel: Implications for Health Policy. Social Policy & Administration, 40(3), 267–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2006.00489.x.

Fatoye, F., Mbada, C., Oluwatobi, S., Odole, A., Oyewole, O., Ogundele, A., & Ibiyemi, O. (2020). Pattern and determinants of willingness-to-pay for physiotherapy services. European Journal of Physiotherapy, 22(4), 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/21679169.2019.1591502.

Gonen, L. D., & Bokek-Cohen, Y. (2018). Valuing the invaluable: Do emotional experiences during fertility treatments affects the willingness to pay for them?. European Review of Applied Psychology, 68(2), 45–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2018.01.002.

Haninger, K., & Hammitt, J. K. (2006, February). Willingness to Pay for Quality-Adjusted Life Years: Empirical Inconsistency Between Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Economic Welfare Theory. http://idei.fr/doc/conf/fpi/papers_2006/hammitt.pdf.

Horowitz, J. K., & McConnell, K. E. (2002). A review of WTA/WTP studies. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 44(3), 426–447. https://doi.org/10.1006/jeem.2001.1215.

Horowitz, J. K., & McConnell, K. E. (2003). Willingness to accept, willingness to pay and the income effect. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 51(4), 537–545. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(02)00216-0.

Javan-Noughabi, J., Kavosi, Z., Faramarzi, A., & Khammarnia, M. (2017). Identification determinant factors on willingness to pay for health services in Iran. Health Economics Review, 7, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-017-0179-x.

Jewczak, M. (2014). Spatial distribution of Willingness to Pay for health services of households in Poland. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica, 3(302), 241–251. https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/foe/article/view/57.

Johannesson, M., Blomquist, G. C., Blumenschein, K., Johansson, P. O., Liljas, B., & O’Conor, R. M. (1999). Calibrating hypothetical willingness to pay responses. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 18(1), 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007708326467.

Lee, S., & Lee, D. K. (2018). What is the proper way to apply the multiple comparison test?. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 71(5), 353–360. https://doi.org/10.4097/kja.d.18.00242.

Łosiewicz, M., & Ryłko-Kurpiewska, A. (2015). Public perception of healthcare personnel in Poland and some other European countries in view of selected studies. International Business and Global Economy, 34, 198–209. https://doi.org/10.4467/23539496IB.13.016.3989.

Magda, I., & Szczygielski, K. (2012). Współpłacenie za usługi medyczne w Polsce: możliwości wprowadzenia i potencjalne skutki. In E. Nojszewska (Ed.), Racjonalizacja kosztów w ochronie zdrowia (pp. 109–119). Wolters Kluwer Polska.

Markiewicz, O. (2021). Value of Life Year and Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds: The Case of Poland. Central European Economic Journal, 8(55), 256–268. https://doi.org/10.2478/ceej-2021-0019.

Najwyższa Izba Kontroli. (2014). Dostępność i finansowanie rehabilitacji leczniczej. Informacja o wynikach kontroli.

Nielsen, J. B., Gyrd-Hanses, D., Kristiansen, I. S., & Nexoe, J. (2003). Impact of Socio-demografic Factors on Willingness to Pay for the Reduction of a Future Health Risk. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 46(1), 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/713676699.

O’Brien, B. J., Gertsen, K., Willan, A. R., & Faulkner, L. A. (2002). Is there a kink in consumers’ threshold value for cost-effectiveness in health care?. Health Economics, 11(2), 175–180. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.655.

Pajewska-Kwaśny, R. (2016). Możliwości implementacji w Polsce wybranych aspektów amerykańskiego systemu ubezpieczeń zdrowotnych. Ekonomia i Prawo w Ochronie Zdrowia, (1), 95–111.

Ryan, M. (2004). Discrete choice experiments in health care. The BMJ, 328(7436), 360–361. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7436.360.

Ryan, M., & Gerard, K. (2003). Using discrete choice experiments to value health care programmes: current practice and future research reflections. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 2(1), 55–64.

Shingala, M. C., & Rajyaguru, A. (2015). Comparison of Post Hoc Tests for Unequal Variance. International Journal of New Technologies in Science and Engineering, 2(5), 22–33. https://www.ijntse.com/upload/1447070311130.pdf.

Silva, A., Von Hausen, N., & Higgins, L. M. (2019). The interaction effect of socioeconomic status and emotions on willingness to pay. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 29(1), 118–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593969.2018.1556180.

Stephenson, T. A. (2000). An Introduction to Bayesian Network Theory and Usage. Dalle Molle Institute for Perceptual Artificial Intelligence.

Viscusi, W. K. (1985). A Bayesian perspective on biases in risk perception. Economics Letters, 17(1–2), 59–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1765(85)90127-2.

Żółtaszek, A. (2012). Private financing of health care in Poland – microsimulation model. Przegląd Statystyczny, 59(3), 290–301. https://ps.stat.gov.pl/PS/2012/3/2012_59_3_290-301.pdf.

Back to top
© 2019–2022 Copyright by Statistics Poland, some rights reserved. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-SA 4.0)